Espartaco fue responsable de una de las rebeliones más atrevidas de la historia, la Tercera Guerra Servil, en el siglo I a.C. Junto a su ejército, provocó una revuelta de esclavos que amenazó al poderoso Imperio Romano hasta sus cimientos. Sus fuerzas pasaron de apenas 74 fugitivos hasta 125,000 en dos años de conflicto, y su liderazgo resultó en la derrota de nueve tropas romanas. Aunque no fue el primer levantamiento en contra del Imperio, sí fue el más grande y peligroso para el gobierno de Roma.
De soldado desertor a esclavo gladiador
Espartaco era originario de Tracia, una región de la actual Bulgaria. Había servido en una unidad aliada del ejército romano, algo habitual entre los habitantes de las zonas conquistadas. Pero según algunas fuentes, se convirtió en desertor.
Aunque el motivo de ello es aún desconocido para los historiadores modernos, la comunidad cree que tenía alrededor de 30 años cuando fue capturado y convertido en esclavo. Pasó a ser un tipo de gladiador conocido como murmillo, un guerrero con gran fuerza y espíritu. Su armadura pesaba 40 libras, peleaba a pecho descubierto y solo contaba con un casco de bronce y protectores de brazos y piernas. Solía portar un escudo, llamado scutumy y una espada ancha de 50 centimetros llamada gladius.
La revuelta de esclavos liderada por Espartaco
Espartaco se entrenó en el cuartel de Lentulus Batiatus en la ciudad de Capua, Italia. Alrededor del 73 a.C., planeó escapar junto a un grupo de 200 gladiadores de su misma división. Robaron varios utensilios para usarlos como armas y tomaron algunos carros con armamento y armaduras para asegurar su fuga. Pero alguien los traicionó y solo lograron huir 74 de ellos.
Inmediatamente después del escape se dirigieron al monte Vesubio y acamparon en el camino. La primera respuesta de Roma fue mínima, subestimando la revuelta como un simple asunto policial. Envió a 3,000 hombres y ninguna legión para asentarse en zonas estratégicas y cortar la ruta de comercio de esclavos. Así, obligarlos a rendirse a causa del hambre. Espartaco, sin embargo, tenía capacidad suficiente para enfrentarlos y someterlos. Mataron a la mayoría de soldados y se apoderaron del lugar.
Ante la inesperada derrota, Roma envió, ahora sí, dos legiones de 5,000 hombres cada una. Pero las fuerzas de Espartaco ya habían alcanzado alrededor de 40,000 seguidores para aquel entonces. Este rápido crecimiento se debió a la afiliación de muchos enemigos del Imperio que escucharon las hazañas del esclavo. Durante los dos años de levantamiento, el grupo alcanzó un total de 125,000 rebeldes. Entre ellos había tanto prisioneros como hombres libres y derrotaron a ambas y otras legiones sin ningún problema, retomando su camino.
Despues de estos eventos, el Imperio Romano identificó a Espartaco como una amenaza y envió, una vez más, a dos ejércitos grandes. En total, unos 60,000 soldados de élite para acabar con la revuelta. Los insurrectos cayeron finalmente, aunque se cree que debido a desacuerdos entre Espartaco y otros líderes que terminaron dividiendo a todo el grupo. Mientras el gladiador buscaba retirarse a los Alpes del norte y liberar a los esclavos, otros preferían seguir luchando hasta tomar toda Italia.
La muerte de Espartaco y la reforma de los esclavos
Se estima que aproximadamente el 75 por ciento de los rebeldes siguieron a Espartaco. Alrededor del 72 a.C., los romanos derrotaron al grupo restante que se había quedado peleando en la batalla del monte Garganus. Murieron 30,000 esclavos aquel día, pero en el último momento Espartaco regresó con el resto de su ejército y ganó la contienda. En honor a los fallecidos, el líder obligó a 300 romanos a luchar entre sí hasta la muerte, tratándolos en venganza como gladiadores. Finalmente, trató de regresar a Roma entre numerosas rencillas y conflictos internos.
Cuando se desplazaban hacia el sur habiendo acordado con piratas de Cilicia que transportarían sus tropas a Roma, éstos no cumplieron el trato. Ante esta situación, el gladiador se vio acorralado y los romanos aprovecharon para el contraataque. Tras un intenso enfrentamiento, Roma los derrotó por completo y Espartaco fue asesinado en el campo de batalla.
Después de su muerte, el ejército de esclavos se disolvió y Roma crucificó a unas 6,000 personas como amenaza, para evitar posibles revueltas futuras. Tiempo después, se redactaron reformas de ley para regular el trato a los esclavos y gladiadores con el fin de prevenir nuevos levantamientos.
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